Postgraduate Thesis uoadl:1326072 353 Read counter

Διαπανεπιστημιακό ΠΜΣ Ιστορία και Φιλοσοφία των Επιστημών και της Τεχνολογίας

Library of the School of Science

Library of the School of Science

2016-12-14

2016

CHRISTOPOULOU VASILIKI KRISTIN

ΘΕΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΑΡΑΜΠΑΤΖΗΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑΤΟΣ Μ.Ι.Θ.Ε. Ε.Κ.Π.Α.

ΚΩΣΤΑΣ ΓΑΒΡΟΓΛΟΥ ΟΜΟΤΙΜΟΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ Μ.Ι.Θ.Ε. Ε.Κ.Π.Α.

ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗΣ ΤΥΜΠΑΣ ΑΝΑΠΛΗΡΩΤΗΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ Μ.Ι.Θ.Ε. Ε.Κ.Π.Α.

ΚΩΣΤΑΣ ΓΑΒΡΟΓΛΟΥ ΟΜΟΤΙΜΟΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ Μ.Ι.Θ.Ε. Ε.Κ.Π.Α.

ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗΣ ΤΥΜΠΑΣ ΑΝΑΠΛΗΡΩΤΗΣ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ Μ.Ι.Θ.Ε. Ε.Κ.Π.Α.

ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΘΟΔΟΛΟΓΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΕΙΣ ΣΤΟ ΕΡΓΟ ΤΟΥ LORD RAYLEIGH

Greek

HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN THE WORK OF LORD RAYLEIGH

Making the assumption of the Newtonian natural philosophy and its laws, along with

their universal validity, one has to proceed to look into the logical consequences of

such an assumption. Laplace at the turn of the 18th century and the beginnings of

19th examined this question in a way which symbolised the perception of the world at

that time. According to this, the vast variety of the phenomena could be reduced to

an ensemble of some quantitative laws which determine the behavior of an essential

ontology, that of moving material particles. This mechanistic perspective along with

the ontology of "matter in motion" was prevailing during the nineteenth century in the

physical theories which were being proposed. At the same time there was an increasing

domination of the quantification of the natural phenomena. Furthermore energy, and the

principle of its conservation played a significant and unifying role, helping in shaping one

unified picture of the world.

But this picture, although dominant at that time, was not escaping the objections and

the problems which had been put forward both by theory and experiment. The dynamical

theory of the gases, and the equipartition theorem in particular, posed such a question

with intesity and as Kelvin put it "it was a cloud" over the dynamical theory as a whole.

Rayleigh was involved in this matter and investigated thoroughly the equipartition theorem.

Both Rayleigh and Ramsay proposed that Argon was a monoatomic gas on the grounds

of Clausius theorem, but this was a result of equipartition theorem as well, and as such

it was involved as a paradigm in the general discussion. Furthermore Rayleigh examined

the validity of this theorem concluding that if there is a problem that lays in the general

mechanics of which this theorem is a direct result. When he investigated the black body

radiation, he made again the assumption of equipartition theorem and the subsequent

law of Rayleigh-Jeans was in direct contradiction with the experimental facts. How Rayleigh

and his works was involved in this controversy is the object of this essay. But this

discussion has to be placed in its historical content and to be examined as a historical

event which took place in a certain place and time and interacted with a number of factors

and conditions, where the subjective ones or the social have not to be neglected

their universal validity, one has to proceed to look into the logical consequences of

such an assumption. Laplace at the turn of the 18th century and the beginnings of

19th examined this question in a way which symbolised the perception of the world at

that time. According to this, the vast variety of the phenomena could be reduced to

an ensemble of some quantitative laws which determine the behavior of an essential

ontology, that of moving material particles. This mechanistic perspective along with

the ontology of "matter in motion" was prevailing during the nineteenth century in the

physical theories which were being proposed. At the same time there was an increasing

domination of the quantification of the natural phenomena. Furthermore energy, and the

principle of its conservation played a significant and unifying role, helping in shaping one

unified picture of the world.

But this picture, although dominant at that time, was not escaping the objections and

the problems which had been put forward both by theory and experiment. The dynamical

theory of the gases, and the equipartition theorem in particular, posed such a question

with intesity and as Kelvin put it "it was a cloud" over the dynamical theory as a whole.

Rayleigh was involved in this matter and investigated thoroughly the equipartition theorem.

Both Rayleigh and Ramsay proposed that Argon was a monoatomic gas on the grounds

of Clausius theorem, but this was a result of equipartition theorem as well, and as such

it was involved as a paradigm in the general discussion. Furthermore Rayleigh examined

the validity of this theorem concluding that if there is a problem that lays in the general

mechanics of which this theorem is a direct result. When he investigated the black body

radiation, he made again the assumption of equipartition theorem and the subsequent

law of Rayleigh-Jeans was in direct contradiction with the experimental facts. How Rayleigh

and his works was involved in this controversy is the object of this essay. But this

discussion has to be placed in its historical content and to be examined as a historical

event which took place in a certain place and time and interacted with a number of factors

and conditions, where the subjective ones or the social have not to be neglected

Science

equipartition black body dynamical theory argon

No

0

Yes

52

90