ΠΜΣ Περιβάλλον και Υγεία. Διαχείριση Περιβαλλοντικών Θεμάτων με Επιπτώσεις στην ΥγείαLibrary of the School of Health Sciences
Πολυξένη Νικολοπούλου Σταμάτη, Καθηγήτρια Ιατρικής Σχολής ΕΚΠΑ,
Βασιλική Ασημακοπούλου, Κύρια Ερευνήτρια, Ινστιτούτο Ερευνών Περιβάλλοντος και Βιώσιμης Ανάπτυξης, Εθνικό Αστεροσκοπείο Αθηνών,
Luc Hens, Καθηγητής, VITO
Εκτίμηση της ατομικής έκθεσης σε σωματιδιακή ύλη βασισμένη σε πειραματική μελέτη
Assessing personal exposure to PM based on individual experimental study
Particulate matter (PM) has been identified as having adverse effects on human health. Therefore it is essential to develop a better understanding of personal exposure to PM by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. These environments are often referred to as ‘microenvironments’. This pilot study was undertaken in order to provide exploratory data on outdoor PM2.5, on indoor PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations together with personal exposure to PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in a Mediterranean urban region, the Attica region. Twenty-four hour indoor (PM2.5, PM1) and outdoor (PM2.5) particulate matter samples were collected from 10th to 26th March 2015. For the purpose of the research, two apartments situated in the center of Athens were selected. The first apartment (apartment B) was situated on the 2nd floor. The second apartment (apartment D) was situated on the 4th floor. For both apartments PM exposure was mainly a result of the aggravated outdoor environment. However in apartment B the exposure was greater due to active PM emitting sources (cooking). In apartment B the organic carbon (OC) concentrations for PM2.5 were higher than those observed outdoors twelve out of seventeen days whereas in the other residence the same happened only for five days. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations for PM2.5 were lower indoors than outdoors. After sampling, the ﬁlters were analyzed for eight ionic components, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+ ,Ca2+, Cl - , NO3 - and SO4 2-. In general, between the two residences all the ion levels were greater in apartment B. Sulfate (SO4 2- ) was found to have the largest contribution among the ions measured both indoors and outdoors. Indoor sulfate levels presented strong correlation between the two apartments. Ammonium (NH4 +) and nitrate (NO3-) had also greater contribution than other ions to both indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations. Measurements were also conducted at locations other than the home address. Data were collected in the following microenvironments: hospitality venues (cafes and restaurant), University, supermarket, car, subway and on foot. The highest exposure to PM10 was noticed inside the subway whereas the highest exposure to PM2.5 and PM1 was recorded inside the cafes indicating smoking as a factor which strongly influences the exposure levels of an individual. In outdoor activities the most predominant ionic constituents of PM2.5 mass were sulfate (SO4 2- ) and nitrate (NO3-). The highest content of Ca2+ in the PM2.5 ionic mass was recorded in the subway.
Main subject category:
Particulate matter, indoor spaces, exposure, chemical composition, experimental study
Number of references:
Assessing personal exposure to PM based on individual experimental study.pdf
File access is restricted only to the intranet of UoA.