This work consists of three parts. The first part presents the theoretical framework of the work, which includes all the great theorists who have dealt with the issue of critical thinking in both children and adults. The research methodology, which analyzes the way of data collection as well as the method of classification, follows. The last part is the research, which describes in detail each step that we have taken in the process and the final conclusions and discussion are at the end of the effort.
More specifically, in the first chapter of the first part, Piaget's theory of the stages of cognitive development is presented, and we are standing in the last two stages of the Logical Thinking and the Typical-Logical Thinking that we are most interested in. We focus mainly on what Piaget says about the critical thinking of students from 10-12 years of age.
In the second chapter, reference is made to Knud Illeris and his views on the acquisition of a stable identity as well as the development of reflection among teenagers and young people.
The next chapter presents Jack Mezirow's Transforming Learning theory, which is fundamental to this work, because what we really want to see is whether transformational learning can be applied to adolescents. We mainly process, according to the above theoretical, the question we mentioned earlier about whether students at the age of 12 can acquire a kind of "thoughtful" thinking.
In the fourth chapter, reference is made to Joanna Hayens, who is developing philosophy with young children, and we think that her ideas can help with this research mainly during the teaching process.
In the last chapter of the theoretical part there is talk about the role played by the arts in the development of critical thinking. In our research we will try through paintings, literary works, poems and films to transform the views of the students. Therefore, we clarify the term critical thinking, commenting on how important educators define it in the context of formal education, and explain how we will use it in this work.
Finally, the methods that we will use in our research to transform the ideas of students are: (a) Transforming Learning through Aesthetic Experience; and (b) Transformation of Dysfunctional Perspectives: Teaching Method for School and Adult Education Adult Education Professor Alexis Kokkos. At this point, the theoretical part of the work is completed.
Then follows the second part of the research methodology. Initially, we present the key elements and limitations that an investigation must have. Next, we follow the scale we built to classify and be able to evaluate students' answers.
The third part details the stages and the evolution of the survey. More specifically, the research is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter being a separate teaching. Each lesson includes: the design, the goals, the initial presentation and the results of each teaching (what actually happened). Finally, the work concludes with the results - conclusions and a general discussion of the subject we have investigated.
Λέξεις – κλειδιά/ Keywords
• Μετασχηματίζουσα Μάθηση – Transformative Learning
• Μετασχηματίζουσα Μάθηση μέσα από την Αισθητική Εμπειρία-Transforming Learning through Aesthetic Experience.
• Μετασχηματισμός Δυσλειτουργικών Αντιλήψεων/ Διδακτική μέθοδος για το σχολείο και την εκπαίδευση ενηλίκων - Transformation of Dysfunctional Perspectives: Teaching Method for School and Adult Education Adult Education.
• Jack Mezirow
• Knud Illeris
• Αλέξης Κόκκος – Alexis Kokkos
Jack Mezirow, Knud Illeris, Alexis Kokkos, Transformative Learning, Transforming Learning through Aesthetic Experience, Transformation of Dysfunctional Perspectives: Teaching Method for School and Adult Education