Περρέα Δέσποινα, Καθηγήτρια, Ιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Ηλιόπουλος Δημήτριος, Επ. Καθηγητής, Ιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Τσολάκης Απόστολος, Επ. Καθηγητής, Οδοντιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Μπιτσάνης Ηλίας, Επ. Καθηγητής, Οδοντιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Τόσιος Κωνσταντίνος, Επ. Καθηγητής, Οδοντιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Γκιζάνη Σωτηρία, Επ. Καθηγήτρια, Οδοντιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
Ρούσσου Βασιλική, Επ. Καθηγήτρια, Οδοντιατρικής, ΕΚΠΑ
During last decades, the number of adolescents and children with serious health problems has increased, especially in case of diabetes. In 2000, the number of people suffering from diabetes was approximately 171 million [American Diabetes Association, 2001]. It is expected that in 2030, 366 million people will suffer from the disease, mainly in developing countries. Due to the longer lifespan of the worldwide population, and the development of medicine in that field, more and more patients seek for dental care, some of whom have never been diagnosed of diabetes before.
The aim of this research was to study the possible differentiation of the biologic procedures involved in the alveolar bone remodeling, during orthodontic power application on rat molars that have previously experimentally become diabetic, compared to the ones observed in healthy animals.
Sixteen male Wistar rats were used in the study. They were divided in two groups. The first group included animals that were experimentally become diabetic through intravenous streptozotocin injection. Only healthy animals were included in the second group. In both groups orthodontic power of 30g was implemented on right first maxillary molar through a closed coil.
The animals were stored in stainless steel cages of an open base, in groups of two in each cage; the light/dark circle was kept steady, having free access in typical laboratory nutrition and tab water. No kind of patch was used. The space temperature was set to 18-22 C and the relative moisture was 55-66%. During the experiment measures were taken so that any pain and discomfort of the animals to be minimized.
All animals were marked in the tail and their weight was measured. In the 2nd group diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Twenty-four hours after the injection, diabetes was verified by measuring blood glucose. Blood was obtained by vessels on the foot of the experiment animals by a saccharometer. In the group that diabetes was verified, coils were placed with general anesthesia. Before that, ether and dithiolether was used. Afterwards, Xylazine 1-5mg/kg and ketamine 50-100mg/kg were injected intramuscularly.
The experimental period lasted for 28 days. The first day the animals were weighted,
and streptozotocin was injected intravenously so that experimentally induced diabetes to be caused. Orthodontic forces were applied to upper first molar eight days after the start of the experiment, and special X-ray examination was conducted. At the 28th day of the experiment all animals of both groups were sacrificed with euthanasia, after the prescription of the combination of ketamine hydrochloride 200mg/kg (intramuscularly) and pentathol 10% (intraperitoneally) solution. After the euthanasia, the final weight of each animal was measured. Histological and histohemical examination of the alveolar bone round the upper first molar was conducted for each animal separately. X-rays and impressions of both jaws were taken, and the distance between the upper first molar and the central incisor of the right side was measured in both groups.
Finally, the skull of each experiment animal was gathered after skin removal; the maxilla was removed and placed in formyl solution 10%. Upper jaw X-rays and impressions were taken with and without the coils. The specimens were then rinsed with water, and divided to right and left side, as well as to frontal and rear region, cutting along the midline, and were immersed to paraphni.
Histological sections were conducted in lab, and photographs were taken and subjected to computational image analysis.
The experiment animals were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection. Diabetes was verified by blood glucose measurement. The coil remained in the mouth of both groups for two weeks. Decreased osteocellular activity was observed in the group of the diabetic animals, proved to be statistically significant, in contrast to the healthy animals. Furthermore, larger molar movement was observed in diabetic animals. The alveolar bone in diabetic induced animals was found to be osteoporotic. The computational image analysis is valid.
Diabetes, Orthodontic, Alveolar bone, Forces