Κατεύθυνση Ευρωπαϊκή ιστορίαLibrary of the School of Philosophy
Γαγανάκης Κωνσταντίνος, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Παπαθανασίου Μαρία, Επίκουρη Καθηγήτρια, Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Ράπτης Κωνσταντίνος, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Ο Νέος Πρότυπος Στρατός υπό την ηγεσία του Oliver Cromwell και η εκστρατεία στην Ιρλανδία, 1649-1650
The New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell and the Irish campaign, 1649-1650
At the beginning of the 17th century, Europe was in a total war. The bloody Thirty Years War between the Catholics and the Protestants had expanded throughout the continent. At the same time, Britain was spending a period of peace and prosperity. All these, however, are going to change. The period between 1640 and 1660 constituted a new era in the English historiography as the centre of the political power changed. The revolution of 1642 was a result of social and financial osmosis and also a declaration of a new political authority. Having confederate with the new aristocracy, the bourgeoise dealt successfully the monarchy, the old mediaeval aristocracy and the state church. Moreover, the old mediaeval financial structure had already begun to collapse under the pressure of the industry. The victory of the middle class was a victory for a whole new social group which grasped the political power.
The Revolution of 1642 was a political movement. Nevertheless, it had also the presence of a religious narrative which managed to unify three different social groups. Puritanism became the link amongst the noblemen, the bourgeoisie and the middle class which were demanding the creation of a new social contract. Thus, the creation of the New Model Army, an army of saints who knew exactly what was at stake, constituted the capping stone of this alliance. This combination of army and believers was something innovative in the military tactics, as the soldiers voted for their agitators.
My research study lies on the creation of this army and the effect of Puritanism on it. I am focusing on the Irish warfare between a heterogeneous Irish alliance against the New Model Army, whose Oliver Cromwell was the command in chief. Cromwell had already been a huge political factor in Britain, but his office was not secure whatsoever. His decision to execute King Charles I, the first execution of a King by his subjects, was not only a radical act but also an act which created centrifugal forces inside the Commonwealth. These tensions were spread not only in Scotland and Ireland but in the army as well. As a result, Cromwell had to act quickly in order to save his country and his political career.
The Irish campaign was played a huge factor in the island’s history, with its results to become clear three centuries later. The massacres and the destructions, following by a huge number of English settlers, led to the emerging of different identities and finally to the creation of two different states. Specifically, my research deals with the massacres in Drogheda and Wexford and how these atrocities influenced the moral of Irish, trying to compare them with the peaceful surrender of the cities of Ross and Clonmel.
Main subject category:
English history, New Model Army, Puritans, Commonwealth, Oliver Cromwell, English Revolution, Irish campaign
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