Θωμάς Παπαρρηγόπουλος Καθηγητής, Ιατρική Σχολή, ΕΚΠΑ
Δημήτριος Αναγνωστόπουλος, Καθηγητής, Ιατρική Σχολή, ΕΚΠΑ
Ελένη Λαζαράτου, Αναπληρώτρια Καθηγήτρια, Ιατρική Σχολή, ΕΚΠΑ
The aim of this study was to examine retrospective school bullying experiences and family factors in a sample of young adults users of addictive substances compared to young adults who were not involved in substance use. The experience of bullying behaviors along with weak family ties have been occasionally associated with the exhibition of psychoactive substance use behaviors. Ninety young adults with an age range between 18 -28 years (mean age = 23.89, SD =2.87) participated in the study, from whom, 45 participants were recruited from the detoxification units of OKANA («Atrapos»), KETHEA («Diavasi») and Aiginiteion Hospital («Athina Programme») and 45 adults from the general population of Attica through the method of availability sampling. The following self-reported questionnaires were used: Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire (RBQ; Schäfer, Korn, Smith, Hunter, Mora‐Merchán, Singer & Van der Meulen, 2004) which investigates bullying experiences and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling & Brown, 1979) that assesses the quality of parent- adolescent relationship. Mann-Whitney U tests showed higher levels of victimization (p<.00025) and increased involvement in bullying others (p<.00025) in clinical sample when compared to non- clinical. Similarly, clinical sample reported lower levels of maternal (p<.00025) and paternal care (p<.00025) and higher levels of maternal (p<.00025) and paternal control (p = .04) when compared to non-clinical sample. Moreover, statistically significant negative correlations were observed between maternal care, victimization (p<.001) and involvement in bullying others (p<.001), and between paternal care, victimization (p<.001) and involvement in bullying others (p<.001). On the contrary, statistically significant positive correlations were found between maternal control, victimization (p<.001), involvement in bullying others (p =.014), and between paternal control and victimization (p= .024). Finally, victimization (B = .27, SE = .10, df = 1, p = .006) and paternal care (B = - .15, SE = .08, df = 1, p = .045) were found to have a significant effect on substance use. Our results corroborated with international literature to a large extent. Our findings are important in that both the school context and parental bonds constitute two of the basic parameters that give rise to healthy child and adolescents development and which may contribute significantly to the development and occurrence of various disorders such as substance abuse. Further research is necessary and the examination of additional factors is needed in order to get a full picture of the mechanisms that act upon the relationship between bullying, family ties and substance use.
Addiction, Addictive substances, Bullying, Family factors, Family ties