From sample preparation to NMR‐based metabolic profiling in food commodities: The case of table olives
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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‐based metabolic profiling has been widely used in food and plant sciences. Despite its simplicity and inherent reproducibility, the determination of the appropriate pre‐processing procedures greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile.
The current study represents a detailed guide of use for untargeted NMR‐based metabolic profiling of table olives (Olea europaea L.).
Greek Kalamon table olives from different geographical origins were selected as reference materials. Differently treated samples were extracted using different solvents and/or solvent systems. Chemical profiles were evaluated with high‐performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Different deuterated solvents and sample concentrations were evaluated for the recording of optimal quality spectra.
The methanol extract of freeze‐dried table olives was found to contain the most representative secondary metabolites, in higher concentrations, as well. The optimal deuterated solvent for the NMR analysis was methanol‐d4, while final sample concentration should be within the range of 10 to 15 mg/mL. Multivariate data analysis was also used to estimate and confirm the variation and clustering caused by different characteristics of the samples.
Results of the present study make evident the necessity for thorough planning and method development prior to any extensive metabolomic study based on NMR spectroscopy. Pre‐processing and sample preparation stages seemed to greatly affect the metabolic profile and spectral quality in the case of table olives, which by extrapolation could apply to other food commodities. Nevertheless, the nature of the samples must be fully described in general, in order to proceed to solid conclusions.
John Wiley and Sons
extraction, NMR‐based metabolic profiling, Olea europaea L, protocol optimisation, sample preparation, table olives
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PlantUP (Grant/AwardNumber: 5002803), European Union (ERDF) and Greek national funds
Olive-Net project (Grant/Award Number:Horizon2020-MSCA-RISE-2016-734899), European Union
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