Department of TheologyLibrary of the School of Theology
Gounari Maria- Eirini
Kωνσταντίνος Μανίκας , Αφ. Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Θεολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Αρχ. π. Γρηγόριος Παπαθωμάς, Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Θεολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Εμμανουήλ Καραγεωργούδης, Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Κοινωνικής Θεολογίας και Θρησκειολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Σεβ. Μητροπολίτης Αρκαλοχωρίου και Βιάννου κ.κ. Ανδρέας Νανάκης, Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Θεολογίας, ΑΠΘ
Διονύσιος Βαλαής, Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Θεολογίας, ΑΠΘ
Δημήτριος Νικολακάκης, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Κοινωνικής Θεολογίας και Χριστιανικού Πολιτισμού, ΑΠΘ
Δέσποινα Μιχάλαγα, Επίκουρη Καθηγήτρια, Τμήμα Θεολογίας, ΕΚΠΑ
Το ζήτημα της Εκκλησιαστικής Περιουσίας από τη σύσταση του νεοελληνικού κράτους μέχρι το 1930 στο πλαίσιο των σχέσεων Εκκλησίας και Πολιτείας (1828-1930)
The issue of the Church property from the establishment of the Modern Greek state till 1930 concerning the relationship between Church and State (1828-1930)
The issue of the administration and management of the Church property has been an issue of crucial importance in church-state relations as early as the establishment of the Modern Greek state. The impact and the unconditional transmission of the Western European spirit to Greece, proved to be the decisive event that promoted the institutionalization of the political dimension in Church-state relations and led to the general subordination of the church administration to the suffocating control of the state apparatus and the manifestation of arbitrary state interventions for the bleeding and appropriation of movable and immovable ecclesiastical property.
Within this framework, the period of the short-lived governance of Io. Kapodistrias was an exception, as his sincere feelings towards the Orthodox Church and the benefit of homeland were expressed through a "good intent" concentration. This guidance fully justified Ioannis Kapodistrias to form a more comprehensive picture of the material and educational needs of the Church, as well as its existing property, as part of his efforts to build the newly established state.
The political leadership moved in the opposite direction until almost 1930. The period of the Bavarian as well as Otto’s Regency was marked by the intense anti-monastic spirit and the constant pursuit of the subordination of the church-monastic property to the absolute jurisdiction of the state, through the procedures of the brutal dissolution of the monasteries of the territory. The targeted actions of the State for the expropriation and liquidation of the church-monastery property, in combination with the establishment of the first Ecclesiastical Fund and its successive evolutions, did not bring the expected financial benefits to the state, since the sloppiness and lack of planning and organization resulted mainly in the squandering of church property.
The situations have evolved in the exact same way in the following years of the 19th century- in the affinity of the absence of consistent organization and exploitation of the church incomes. The political attitude towards the issue of the Church property should be considered to be included in the echo of the agricultural reform of 1871 and the distribution of national land, the legitimation of the infringements and the imposition of levies for the benefit of Education, but these objectives could not be achieved.
In the first three decades of the 20th century and within this new situation that had been created by the long-lasting application of total state control of church administration, the State continued to claim the administration and management of the Church property, as a means of manipulating the Church- in general, and realizing governmental programmes- in particular. Therefore, the government of Th. Pangalos aimed at strengthening the country's Air Defence, and at strengthening civilian property, while the Venizelist governments of 1917 and 1928 aimed mainly at facilitating and strengthening the settlement of refugee populations, the rehabilitation of landless people and the support of small property.
The constitutional interventions were favoured and consolidated from the very beginning of the establishment of the modern Greek state, when the free will of the Church orders was ignored or manipulated by the representatives of the political authorities. Nevertheless, after the end of the Regency period, the church authority proved its responsibility for the timidity of the past and reacted to the formation of regulations on its financial matters, without particular results. Its reactions were stronger throughout the 20th century, culminating in the laws on the General Ecclesiastical Fund and on Parishes in 1909 and 1910, the bills of the Legislative Committee of 1914-1915, the Memorandum and the Draft Law of Meletios Metaxakis in 1920. Finally, the negotiating policy of Chrysostomos I Papadopoulos proved vital, leading to the establishment of the ODEP in 1930 and the separation of a large part of the remaining Church property into maintainable or not and pushed the State, after constant and persistent negotiations, to take the ecclesiastical claims more seriously.
Main subject category:
Church of Greece, Church Property, Monasteries, Ecclesiastical Fund, ODEP, Kapodistrias, Bavarian Regency, Venizelos, Bishops of Athens, Agricultural laws
Number of references:
Το ζήτημα της Εκκλησιαστικής Περιουσίας από τη σύσταση του νεοελληνικού κράτους μέχρι το 1930 στο πλαίσιο των σχέσεων Εκκλησίας και Πολιτείας (1828-1930).pdf
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