Supramolecular Control of Reactivity in the Solid State: From Templates to Ladderanes to Metal-Organic Frameworks

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Τμήμα Χημείας
Supramolecular Control of Reactivity in the Solid State: From Templates to Ladderanes to Metal-Organic Frameworks
Γλώσσες Τεκμηρίου:
We describe how reactivity can be controlled in the solid state using molecules and self-assembled metal−organic complexes as templates. Being able to control reactivity in the solid state bears relevance to synthetic chemistry and materials science. The former offers a promise to synthesize molecules that may be impossible to realize from the liquid phase while also taking advantage of the benefits of conducting highly stereocontrolled reactions in a solvent-free environment (i.e., green chemistry). The latter provides an opportunity to modify bulk physical properties of solids (e.g., optical properties) through changes to molecular structure that result from a solid-state reaction. Reactions in the solid state have been difficult to control owing to frustrating effects of molecular close packing. The high degree of order provided by the solid state also means that the templates can be developed to determine how principles of supramolecular chemistry can be generally employed to form covalent bonds. The paradigm of synthetic chemistry employed by Nature is based on integrating noncovalent and covalent bonds. The templates assemble olefins via either hydrogen bond or coordination-driven self-assembly for intermolecular [2 + 2] photodimerizations. The olefins are assembled within discrete, or finite, self-assembled complexes, which effectively decouples chemical reactivity from effects of crystal packing. The control of the solid-state assembly process affords the supramolecular construction of targets in the form of cyclophanes and ladderanes. The targets form stereospecifically, in quantitative yield, and in gram amounts. Both [3]- and [5]-ladderanes have been synthesized. The ladderanes are comparable to natural ladderane lipids, which are a new and exciting class of natural products recently discovered in anaerobic marine bacteria. The organic templates function as either hydrogen bond donors or hydrogen bond acceptors. The donors and acceptors generate cyclobutanes lined with pyridyl and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The metal−organic templates are based on Zn(II) and Ag(I) ions. The reactivity involving Zn(II) ions is shown to affect optical properties in the form of solid-state fluorescence. The solids based on both the organic and metal−organic templates undergo rare single-crystal-to-single-crystal reactions. We also demonstrate how the cyclobutanes obtained from this method can be applied as novel polytopic ligands of metallosupramolecular assemblies (e.g., self-assembled capsules) and materials (e.g., metal−organic frameworks). Sonochemistry is also used to generate nanostructured single crystals of the multicomponent solids or cocrystals based on the organic templates. Collectively, our observations suggest that the organic solid state can be integrated into more mainstream settings of synthetic organic chemistry and be developed to construct functional crystalline solids.
Έτος δημοσίευσης:
Leonard R. MacGillivray
Giannis S. Papaefstathiou
Tomislav Frišcic
Tamara D. Hamilton
Dejan-Krešimir Bucar
Qianli Chu
Dushyant B. Varshney
Ivan G. Georgiev
Accounts of Chemical Research
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Αριθμός / τεύχος:
supramolecular chemistry, metal-organic frameworks, crystal engineering, [2+2] photodimerization
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