Γρηγόριος Χονδροκούκης ,Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Βιομηχανικής Διοίκησης και Τεχνολογίας, Πανεπιστήμιο Πειραιά
Δημήτριος Καραλέκας,Καθηγητής Τμήμα Βιομηχανικής Διοίκησης και Τεχνολογίας, Πανεπιστήμιο Πειραιά
Ιωάννης Γιαννατσής ,Επίκουρος Καθηγητής Τμήμα Βιομηχανικής Διοίκησης και Τεχνολογίας, Πανεπιστήμιο Πειραιά
In times of high turnmoil, under economic recession and rapid changes regimes, organizations face continuous shocks. Human capital can constitute the cornerstone of an organization, in order to overcome all external obstacles as well as internal dysfunctions. Leadership and empowerment are tools that can activate all spiritual and mental wealth that the human nature incorporates and play a critical role in stabilization and growth of organizations through the employees’ performance.
The main purpose of the current study is to examine the role of leadership in the performance of employees in a public hospital and especially the quality of the relationship that is created between leader-member and how this is related with the performance of the employees. Additionally, it aims to explore the leader roles that are developed in this specific working environment and how these are related also with the performance of the employees. At the same time, the impact of the empowerment in the performance of the employees is examined.
The research was conducted in a public hospital, the period between November – December 2016 with a responsive rate of 84,4%. The population under study reached 382 employees of all expertise. The data was collected through the completion of questionnaires. Empowerment was assessed using Spreitzer’s (1995) questionnaire. The quality of the relationship between leader-member (LMX) was assessed using the Graen & Uhl-Bien’s (1995) questionnaire. Leadership roles were assessed using Quinn’s (1988) questionnaire. The performance of the employees was assessed using Williams & Anderson’s (1991) questionnaire.
The sample is comprised of intense women presence (64,1%) and high educational level (university education 39,5%, post-graduate/doctorate education 20,1%). The vast majority of the sample are consisted of permanent employees (70,7%), while over the half of the sample individuals asked, is occupied in medical and nursing specialties (34,8% and 29,1% relatively). Over the third of the sample size (38,2%) retains a total experience over 20 years. Through the analysis of the sample, a positive statistical significant correlation was indicated between empowerment and the performance of the employees (in-role and OCB p<0,001). A statistical significant correlation was also resulted between the quality of leader-member relationship (LMX) and the performance of the in-role employees (p=0,002) and OCB (p=0,001). Also, a positive statistical significant correlation between leader roles of producer, coordinator, broker, facilitator, director and innovator and the OCB performance (p<0,005) of the employees was noticed. Leader roles that were observed with the highest frequency are those of the facilitator (1,6), director (1,4), coordinator (1,4) and mentor (1,0).
Employees feel empowered and this affects their performance in their pre-determined working duties (in-role) as well as in their behavioral demonstration outside of their working duties (OCB), which favor their colleagues and the organization overall. Furthermore, the superiors and their immediate subordinates have developed high quality relationships (LMX) that positively affect the performance of the employees in respect of their inner (in-role) as well as outer (OCB) working role. The behaviors of superiors that are oriented in the processing of works (producer), in the planning and implementation of targets (director) and in planning, coordination and maintenance of rules (coordinator), influence, as it would be expected, positively the performance of the employees, as far as their duties outside of their pre-determined working role (OCB) are concerned. It seems though, that the employees are influenced by additional superiors’ behaviors that are not focused in productivity and performance, like expression of innovation and creativity (innovator), negotiation skills with superiors or the outer environment of the organization (broker), the encouragement of free will, the team creation (facilitator).
In accordance with the employees, their superiors in higher frequency present behaviors that are concentrated in the achievement of working expectations (director) and in the coordination of works (coordinator) as well as the human interaction and relationships (facilitator, mentor).
Empowerment, Psychological empowerment, Leadership, LMX, Leadership roles, Behavioral complexity, Performance, OCB, Extra role, In role, Transformational, Transactional, Ethical, Servant, Empowering, Charismatic, Authentic, Spiritual leadership