The human soul's upward journey towards Good in Plato and Plotinus: a comparative study in the "Phaedrus", the "Republic" and the "Enneads" IV, V and VI

Postgraduate Thesis uoadl:2098355 736 Read counter

Unit:
Κατεύθυνση Αρχαία Ελληνική Φιλολογία
Library of the School of Philosophy
Deposit date:
2017-11-06
Year:
2017
Author:
Leontitsi Aikaterini
Supervisors info:
Δημήτριος Καραδήμας, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Φιλολογίας, Τμήμα Φιλολογίας, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή ΕΚΠΑ
Μαίρη Γιόση, Καθηγήτρια Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Φιλολογίας, Τμήμα Φιλολογίας, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή ΕΚΠΑ
Ιωάννης Καλογεράκος, Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Φιλοσοφίας, Τμήμα Φιλοσοφίας, Παιδαγωγικής και Ψυχολογίας, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή ΕΚΠΑ
Original Title:
Η ανοδική πορεία της ανθρώπινης ψυχής προς το Αγαθό στον Πλάτωνα και στον Πλωτίνο: μία συγκριτική μελέτη στον "Φαῖδρον", στην "Πολιτείαν" και στις "Ἐννεάδες" IV, V και VI
Languages:
Greek
Translated title:
The human soul's upward journey towards Good in Plato and Plotinus: a comparative study in the "Phaedrus", the "Republic" and the "Enneads" IV, V and VI
Summary:
This study deals with the issue of the human soul’s upward journey towards Good, as presented on the one hand in Plato’s "Phaedrus" and "Republic" and on the other in Plotinus’ "Enneads" IV, V and VI. First, in chapter A the platonic proof of the soul’s immortality is revealed and the notion of platonic love (in the "Phaedrus") is analysed; a love that contributes to the retrieval of the lost wings of the lover and loved one’s souls, leading them to the remembrance of the Forms and to their theosis. Subsequently, the allegories of the "Republic’s" books VI-VII are analysed; that is the allegory of the Sun, which constitutes a symbol of the Form of the Good, the allegory of the Line, which describes the levels of mental enlightenment that lead to the Good, and the allegory of the Cave, which depicts the stages of education and the ascent of the guardians towards the light of the Good. Moreover, we examine dialectic as "ψυχαγωγία" (the treatment of the soul and its guidance to the truth) in the "Phaedrus" and also the metaphysical "αἵρεσις βίου" (choice of life) and virtue as source of internal freedom in the myth of Er in the "Republic". In chapter B, the same subjects are studied as approached by Plotinus. Firstly, the plotinian proof of soul’s immortality is mentioned and the “descent” of the soul to the body is interpreted, as well as Plotinus’ theory of the undescended part of the soul. Thereafter, we analyse the notion of plotinic love that leads to the Good, which is presented as Eros but also as the efficient and final cause of everything. Additionally, the roads and the stages that the philosopher has to pass until they reach the mystical union with the One are examined in detail. This chapter closes with the analysis of the plotinic theory of reincarnation. In chapter C, the similarities and the differences between the platonic and the plotinic theories concerning the mentioned issues are investigated, id est the immortality of the soul and its “descent” to the sensible world, the notion of the Good, the stages of the ascent to the Good and reincarnation. Finally, the conclusions of the present study are drawn and it is pointed out that Plotinus was not a simple commentator of Plato but, although he was based on the platonic theory, he changed it a lot by introducing many original ideas.
Main subject category:
Philosophy - Psychology
Keywords:
ascent, stairs, soul, tripartite division, immortality, descent, wings, love, religious experience, philosopher, lover, beloved, overflow, good, one, beauty, forms, memory, enthusiasm, intellect, undescended intellect, knowledge, education, guardians, dialectic, purification, mysteries, virtue, return, theosis, bliss, Plato, Plotinus, mysticism, mystical union, trance, escape, allegories, Sun, line, cave, images, circle, centre, eschatological myths, choice of demon, reincarnation
Index:
No
Number of index pages:
0
Contains images:
Yes
Number of references:
97
Number of pages:
139
Η ανοδική πορεία της ανθρώπινης ψυχής προς το Αγαθό στον Πλάτωνα και στον Πλωτίνο.pdf (1 MB) Open in new window