Λάμπρος Λιάβας, Καθηγητής Εθνομουσικολογίας, Τμήμα Μουσικών Σπουδών, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή, Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών
Αναστάσιος Χαψούλας Καθηγητής Εθνομουσικολογίας και Πολιτισμικής Ανθρωπολογίας ΕΚΠΑ
Μαρία Παπαπαύλου Αναπληρώτρια Καθηγήτρια Εθνομουσικολογίας και Πολιτισμικής Ανθρωπολογίας ΕΚΠΑ
Ο Καβοντορίτικος οργανικός σκοπός, μία μελέτη περίπτωσης. Από τα λυροντάουλα και τις τσαμπούνες, στα βιολιά και τα λαούτα. Από το τοπικό στο υπερτοπικό.
The “Kavontoritikos” instrumental traditional piece, a case study. From the “lirontaoula” ensemble (lira and ntaouli) and the “tsabounes” (bagpipes) to the violins and the “laouta” (lutes). From the local to the superlocal.
The subject of our worksheet is the “Kavontoritikos” instrumental musical piece, as a case study. The pass from old musical instruments, tsabouna (bagpipe), old type lira and ntaouli (traditional drum), which are called “lirontaoula” ensemble, to the modern instruments as the violin and the lute. The old anonymous musical local tradition, the first recordings and the final establishment through the discography of the violin, of an instrumental musical piece to a superlocal level. The research of the evolution during the time, in the 20th century, of the Kavontoritikos, from initially local and limited musical piece of the tsabouna bagpipe and lira named as “Kallianiotikos” or “Gaida” at the Greek villages of Arvanites on South Evia island, which is near the cape of Cavo Doro, near by the villages Saint Dimitrios and Kallianou and its establishment through the discography, to a superlocal instrumental piece which is considered as basic in the repertoire of the violin in the Aegean Sea and especially on the Cyclades islands.
The motivic repertoire, which has a long historical presence in the Aegean region, has as a main feature the paratactic style. This is about short-term musical autonomous phrases, the rhythmic and melodic motives, which are composed within the possible limits of the tsabouna instrument, which is the musical interval of the sixth and with the criterion of the musical tradition which has the tsabouna bagpiper. The motivic repertoire does not seem to have much variation between the tsabouna and the old type lira. It is quite the same tradition. On the other hand, the modern violin, instrument with a greater potential and range, keeps a part of the motivic mother tradition of the tsabouna, while at the same time it incorporates new elements. The decisive musical interval of the sixth can act as a criterion for the identification of old tsabouna motives to the playing of modern instruments.
The cultural networks of communication between the Greek communities of Arvanites on South Evia island, South Karystia area and the opposite coasts of the mainland Viotia and Attika, combined with the musical networks of professional musicians, which were active in the area of South Evia island, but also in Thiva, Livadia and Athens and their suburbs, cultivated and established the rhythmic and melodic motives of Kavontoritikos, as we know today. In addition, the network of “repetition” through the discography, the television and the radio contributed to the Kavontoritikos become known as an instrumental violin piece with a superlocal range. Folk musicians, soloists of the violin, recorded and introduced to the general public, each their own personal version of Kavontoritikos with references to the old paratactic tradition of the tsabouna bagpipe. These great musical personalities, each with their own personal style, have contributed to the establishment of the Kavontoritikos through the discography as one of the key pieces of traditional Greek violin, not only to the “Pancycladic” repertoire, but also to the superlocal musical repertoire of the Aegean Sea. These recorded musical performances of the Kavontoritikos are a point of reference, imitation and reproduction for all subsequent Greek folk violinists. Through the network of the “performance” and the development of local traditional dance associations, throughout Greece, Kavontoritikos has become known in the recent decades to the new generation and now belongs to the panhellenic repertoire.
Kavontoritikos, Kallianiotikos, tsabouna, bagpipe, lira, violin, Evia, Aegean Sea, gaida, ntaouli, Greek traditional music, ethnomusicology, Arvanites, Karystos, Cavo Doro, Stathis Koukoularis, George Koros, lirontaoula, Karystia